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For their creativity, time and energy, our thanks to: And finally, special thanks also to those who endorsed the Report: If we are to mitigate the effects of climate change, we need a rapid reduction in our prodution of greenhouse gases.

Through the IPCC, attempts are being made to do this e,g. Copenhagcn and Kyoto Unfortunately, such reductions only include the developed world and the targets set have been small compared to what the climate science indicates is needed.

This approach starts by setting a maximum safe atmospheric concentration for carbon dioxide, then estimates what level of global emissions gives rise to this, then apportions this to each country based on its population.

Countries that currently produce more than this largely the developed world can buy the right to emit more from those that emit less than their quota largely the developing world.

Over time the total right to emit would be reduced until the safe level of emissions is reached Contraction and Convergence is seen by many as the only ethically sound way of selling reduction targets that have a reasonable chance of gaining support from the world community.

In order to make the required reductions we will have to simultaneously reduce the amount of energy we use to achieve a set goal e. In the following we look at the plethora of renewable sources we can access.

In Chapter 13 we saw how emissions can be reduced through energy efficiency, or the climate directly engineered. Chapter 13 also presented one of many possible combinations of changes to our energy supply that has the potential to make major carbon savings, together with an example abatement curve.

Hammond, Jessica Lamond, David G. It looks like it. The Bottom Line is that: The US would not even agree to the Kyoto Protocol, so the GDR idea while intensifying the blame-game and so perhaps appealing to some Develolping Countries, in reality simply inflames an existing disagreement.

It embodies the economic political reality, that adjustment to equal per capita emissions entitlements will take time. It is a rational, flexible and transparent concept that holds out the best hope of all urgent proposals that might form a basis of an environmentally and economically rational global agreement on climate change mitigation.

The contraction and convergence idea was at the core of the proposals for international agreement that are part of the Garnaut Climate Change Review, commissioned by and presented to the Australian Prime Minister and all State Premiers R.

This report is a collaborative effort between leading climate change economists and the Australian Treasury. Two scenarios were developed jointly with the Garnaut Climate Change Review.

These more stylised scenarios assume united global action, with all countries taking on emission reduction obligations from This represents an optimal post agreement.

National contributions are based on a contraction and convergence approach, whereby the allocation of emission rights among countries converges from current levels to equal per capita rights by Garnaut, a.

The Garnaut scenario is consistent with stabilisation at around ppm by ; the Garnaut scenario concentrations peak above ppm, then decline to around ppm by consistent with stabilisation at ppm soon thereafter.

Assuming potential problems could be overcome, Contraction and Convergence offers a stunningly simple way of applying the same environmental standards to all.

At the same time it would clearly demand more action from some than others. Thousands of miles from Tuvalu, African farmers are reporting consistently shorter rain-fed growing seasons.

In large areas of Africa the production of maize is expected to fall significantly as a result of changing seasons and drought caused by climate change.

Whilst our governments debate what standards we should all be expected to reach, millions of people are already facing the harsh realities of a changing climate.

A global climate agreement is needed urgently, but it will only work if all countries are involved and prepared to do as much as they can, not as little as they can get away with.

Lets hope all countries, the US included, will rise to the challenge and ensure a sustainable, equal future for all. Insurers can play a part in helping mitigation policies to be more effective.

We need a global deal. These countries are understandably frustrated that they are likely to be denied the historic opportunity that we in the rich countries had to grow their economies and lift their people out of poverty without having to take account of the real costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

For developing countries to agree to a global deal in which they take on differentiated convergence targets, the date and rate of convergence of the rich countries would need to consider the historical responsibility of the rich countries for the bulk of the problem and also their far greater capacity to pay for the adjustment costs.

Another factor that is frequently neglected is that such proposals imply continued multi-decade economic growth of the rich countries with per capita emissions far above average.

There is no alternative to this given where we are of course, but this needs to be considered in weighing the contributions the rich countries should make to a global deal.

To summarise, the following factors should be considered in negotiating the date and trajectories of contraction and convergence proposals:.

Ross Garnaut explicitly adopted convergence to equal per capita emissions as a central plank of his recommendations in his Review. That is, there would be a global cap on annual greenhouse gas emissions which would be set to decline year after year until a safe level is reached.

Consistent with this cap, allocations of permissible emissions would be made to individual countries reflecting their existing emissions and state of economic development.

Over time per capita emissions would converge to a common level. The Limits to Travel David Metz. Note that in the Delayed Action scenario the burden sharing regime only applies after This involves emissions from industrialised nations reducing contracting and emissions from all nations converging to an overall target consistent with stabilising GHG concentrations in the atmosphere.

Over time, emissions would contract and converge to an equal share per person. To achieve this equitable distribution, each of us in the UK would need to reduce our average annual carbon dioxide emissions from 10 tonnes to two tonnes.

Contraction and Convergence is the science-based, global climate-policy framework, proposed to the United Nations since by the Global Commons Institute.

It is supported by many climate change scientists and policy makers, including the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.

The rates for Contraction: Convergence are compared in this Animation as: Fellow of Royal Institute of British Architects "For his challenging and inspirational promotion of environmental issues, in particular his development of the concept of Contraction and Convergence.

The ice caps are shrinking and global weather patterns are unpredictable; environmentalists believe that the world is moving into unknown territory.

There is a desperate need to create an effective policy for preserving healthy ecosystems by providing incentives and the resources to do so. The Contract and convergence approach promoted by UN is a well thought through and potentially powerful approach which also addresses fair distribution.

Core objectives with optional sub-topics. Climate change as an environmental hazard: Define the relationship between adaptation and mitigation and the health co-benefits of each.

Demonstrate clinical, leadership and management skills for low carbon healthcare. Describe how to obtain feedback from staff and patients, analyse processes, identify improvements and plan how these could be implemented and evaluated e Demonstrate awareness of the role of doctors as managers, including seeking ways to continually improve the environmental impact of care, and the use and prioritisation of resources.

Demonstrate advocacy skills for action on climate change and the determinants of health. Explain the basic scientific evidence base for global warming and climate change.

Make reference to systems theory and importance of feedback loops normative and amplificatory in auto-regulation of climate and global biological systems.

Critically appraise scientific evidence linking climate change and health. Access information sources on climate change, health and mitigation measures and use the information in relation to patient care, health promotion, giving advice and information to patients and research and education.

If international negotiations can achieve a fair Contraction and Convergence target within enough time, there is every likelihood people can grow old, and perhaps even older, in a carbon-constrained world.

Paul Read is a research psychologist, public health lecturer and Fellow at the Monash Sustainability Institute, where his work focuses on human needs and their sustainability across countries and time.

Questions for our political leaders. Questions the media should be asking in the carbon tax debate. How confident are you that the carbon tax you are proposing will put Australia on a path to that outcome?

As the unfolding ecological catastrophe which human behaviour is visiting on the earth continues to accelerate, the politicians meet around the globe to plan their latest attempts to stimulate economic activity.

No thought given to the now obvious fact that it is this very activity which is responsible for the catastrophe. Instead of owning up to the obvious, and immediately implementing policies of economic contraction and convergence, they seem determined to let greed be their motive and their guide for as long as they feel able to get away with it.

Action for the Earth. It attracts a globally-divided whole, back through equity in adversity cadentially to the unity we need to experience to survive climate change.

If there is something better, we had better find it soon. Its Principles are precaution and equity. Calculating future emissions contraction on the basis of concentrations and sink evidence is a non-random way of responding to the objective of the UNFCCC.

It makes compliance with its objective less unlikely than does the randomness of the negotiations there so far, as for example at COP After a very long time this has become a bad habit.

Take for example these comments from Fred Pearce in the Daily Telegraph while ago: And the boys at Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth have run something close to a vendetta against the guy who has developed and tirelessly promoted the idea - a pony-tailed, violin-playing, South African exile called Aubrey Meyer.

There is no alternative. Not least because the deepening darkness increases the overall danger of worsening Confusion and Climate Chaos.

The convergence level is calculated at a level that resulting global emissions follow the agreed global emission path.

It might be more difficult for some countries to reduce emissions compared to others, e. Therefore, emission trading could be allowed to level off differences between allowances and actual emissions.

As current per capita emissions differ greatly between countries some developing countries with very low per capita emissions, e.

This would generate a flow of resources from developed to developing countries if these emission allowances are traded. They are from observations made at the Mauna Loa Observatory.

At a current value of The standard conversion rate is 2. Over 50 years the average annual increase has more than doubled from around 2 Gt C in to 4.

The Carbon Budget Challenge: According to the principle of common but differentiated responsibility in international environmental law: But it is not just the current rate of CO2 emissions that is important.

Since carbon dioxide hangs around in the atmosphere for 50 to years, the cumulative total emissions from historical data also need to be accounted for.

The way emissions are calculated also leaves room for scrutiny and creative data visualisation. The Historic Carbon Budget group worked on visualising historical time series of carbon dioxide emissions and comparing countries relative to the world mean.

Under contraction and convergence, each country will start out with emission entitlements equal to its current real emissions level, and then, over time, converge to equal its per capita entitlements, while the overall global budget contracts to accommodate the emissions reduction objective.

In the process of convergence, the rights and interests of a country with low current real emissions are infringed by a country with high real emissions.

In the budget account proposal, per capita emission entitlements of all countries are equal from the very start, and per capita real emissions of different countries do not have to converge in the future, as long as each country clears its budget accounts by the target year.

The use of data sources other than official data from BASIC countries is for illustration purposes only, and does not mean acceptance of or agreement with those values by the Brazilian, Chinese, Indian or South African governments.

The failure of the Kyoto Protocol to include Developing Countries in emissions reductions is a serious one. Annual emissions of Developing Countries are growing so rapidly that even if the Industrialised Countries meet all their goals under the Kyoto Protocol, the goal of reducing emissions enough to avoid a global climate crisis will not be achieved.

The total number of permits issued is based on overall emissions contraction over time with the per capita emissions converging over time. During the transition period, emissions allowances converge from the status quo to equal per capita emissions.

Because of the long phase-in time that would be required to move toward per capita allocations in the developed nations.

Contraction and convergence means an allocation that would allow the large emitter nations long enough time, perhaps thirty or forty years to contract their emissions through the replacement of greenhouse gas-emitting capital and infrastructure and eventually converge on a uniform per capita allocation.

Support for contraction and convergence has been building around the world with the European Parliament in recently calling for its adoption with a 90 percent majority.

A per capita allocation would be just for the following reasons: Since most nations entered the Copenhagen and Cancun negotiations as if national interest rather than global responsibility to others was an adequate basis for national climate change policies, the commitments made under the Copenhagen Accord and Cancun agreements fail to satisfy equity criteria.

In fact, in the lead-up to Copenhagen, most of the justifications for national commitments that had been announced by countries to reduce their emissions were exclusively focused on whether they met global goals to reduce GHG emissions unadjusted by equity considerations.

There have been several proposals discussed by the international community about second commitment period frameworks that would expressly incorporate equity into future ghg emissions reductions pathways.

In fact, the Copenhagen Accord and the Cancun agreements allowed each nation to identify its emissions reduction commitment based upon voluntary national considerations without regard to equity.

Off-line Don exchange comments with me as follows: Like this for example: I still feel that way. My take on getting over the brinksmanship is to turn up the volume on those nations that have been the major barriers.

It, of course, may not work but it is at least a strategy. The impacts of climate change will be global and a response will be required from all nations.

This demands a different perspective in which individuals, businesses and governments accept responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions - including those emissions occurring outside their borders that are associated with the products they import.

Industrialised countries will face increasing pressure to take the lead in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This is because from a historical perspective OECD countries have been responsible for the vast majority of carbon emissions.

If developing countries are to achieve low-carbon economies they will want to see action from the wealthy nations.

However, OECD countries are not taking the lead and rapidly developing countries such as China, Russia, Brazil and India are adopting the same unsustainable economic policies, technologies and systems of production and distribution, thus exacerbating the problem.

Virtuous Circles Published by: Contraction and convergence Climate change requires two possibly conflicting actions. Carbon emissions must be reduced to avoid the worst outcome of climate change.

Poor countries need rapid economic development so that no country, community, or individual is too poor to adapt to climate change.

The concept of contraction and convergence , developed by the Global Commons Institute, considers the need to pursue both these actions simultaneously.

Contraction and convergence reduce overall carbon emissions to a sustainable level but do so according to an equal share of emissions per person globally.

Industrialised countries would dramatically reduce their emissions whilst developing countries would increase theirs to allow for, and stimulate, development and poverty reduction.

Star attraction was Dave Hampton, The Carbon Coach - an expert consultant in personal and corporate carbon reduction targets.

He regularly demonstrates to audiences of all ages the scale and significance of our personal carbon emissions with the help of some specially designed purple helium-filled balloons.

Unfazed by a gaggle of overenthusiastic schoolchildren, Mr. It is intended to form the basis of an international agreement which will reduce carbon emissions to avoid climate change.

Imagine being kissed by Venus 25 times in the next 40 Years. The web-site highlights good practice and encourages the community, both individuals and synagogues, to change behaviour.

One group, the Rabbis of the Reform Movement, has voted to endorse the Earth Charter , a global declaration of principles for a just, sustainable and peaceful twenty-first century and are now being urged to join the Archbishop of Canterbury in campaigning for Contraction and Convergence.

This is an international movement asking governments of the world to agree to contract the amount of greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere to an amount the Earth can bear and share out the right to emit greenhouse gases on a per-head-of-population basis.

Those richer countries where the emissions far outweigh the population, in justice,pay for their surplus and the payments go to those countries where the emissions are much less but the populations much greater, namely the developing world.

Dominion or Degradation - Rabbi Jeffrey Newman. The answer is called Contraction and Convergence. First, what is a safe concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases?

Is it twice the current concentration? Half the current concentration? Many scientists argue a safe concentration is what it was during the s. The fact is that the Earth system can absorb a certain amount of greenhouse gases without causing harmful change to the climate.

So once a safe concentration is agreed upon, it is then easy to calculate the total global amount of greenhouse gas that can be emitted each year.

The sooner the better, of course, because the longer we wait the more harm is done to people and nature and the more expensive it becomes to fix the problem.

The simplest and fairest way is to give every person an equal share. Under this framework, the emission entitlement of people in a poor country will increase relative to what it is now, while that of people in a wealthy country will decrease.

This is fair because historically poor countries have not caused the global warming problem and they need to now quickly develop to eliminate poverty.

Winning the struggle Against Global Warming. All countries are expected in the long run, to converge upon a similar level of fossil energy- use per capita.

The North will contract, while the South will expand towards a convergence with the North. Over-users will have to come down from their present level, while under-users are permitted to raise their present level, albeit at a gradient that is much less steep than the one industrial countries went through historically, levelling off at the point of convergence.

However, the convergence of North and South on equal emission levels cannot be achieved at the expense of contraction, i. Why was his team so determined to produce figures that show that little need be done about warming that they refused to accept even the possibility of much worse damage happening?

Contraction and convergence The contraction-and-convergence approach assigns every human being an equal entitlement to greenhouse gas emissions.

All countries would thus move toward the same per capita emissions. Total emissions would contract over time, and per capita emissions would converge on a single figure.

The actual convergence value, the path toward convergence, and the time when it is to be reached would all be negotiable.

Some proposals compensate the potential burden on developing nations with generous emissions allocation, whether as a simple strategy to obtain developing countries support for the regime or in a realisation of the global equity principle borrowed from social justice.

Allocation for near-term targets would thus be an interpolation between current emission levels and a longer-term equal per capita allocation.

It combines ecology with justice. This model schematically envisages two different development paths: All nations of the world would adjust their use of resources so that in half a century from now they no longer overstretch the absorption and regeneration capacity of the biosphere.

In the end, there is no justification for any other distribution of globally important resources; the right of all nations to self-defined, self-determined and equal development permits it only to make claims that are socially and ecologically sustainable at a global level.

This is what the contraction and convergence argument inspired by Kant comes down to: Resource justice in the world crucially depends on whether the industrial countries are capable of retreating from overconsumption of the global environment.

The example of greenhouses gases may serve to illustrate the path of shrinking resource consumption. It goes without saying that this figure refers to the global North, i.

On the other hand, developing countries appear in the model as tracing an upward curve in resource consumption. Without access to kerosene or biogas, without an energy and transport infrastructure, it is hard to satisfy even the basic needs of modern human life.

However, this upward movement ends at an upper line of ecological sustainability for all; natural limits set the framework for justice.

As it happens, a number of emerging economies are already about to hit that limit in the coming decade. It begins with the insight that environmental space is finite, and it ends with a fair sharing of the environment by the citizens of the world.

Equalising Per Capita Emissions A good starting point in the search for equitable solutions is the proposal to equalise per capita emissions at some point in time, meaning in effect, to assign everyone the same property rights to the atmosphere.

As noted earlier in fi gure 10, the disparities in per capita emissions between developed and developing countries are huge. Developing countries have generally promoted discussion of per capita emissions because it highlights these disparities in emissions and the associated individual lifestyles.

There is clearly a strong equity argument in favour of the concept of using per capita emissions as the basis for defi ning commitments.

Debates about global public goods need to be explicitly political. The barriers to providing public goods and preventing public bads are, for the most part, political and this is where the analysis has to start.

For example, if addressing climate change is seen as merely a technical or managerial question of allocating property rights to the atmosphere i.

Inter-generational justice also enters the climate change equation. Many of the rationales for taking costly action now in order to tackle a problem whose worst effects may not be felt for many decades, is that we have a responsibility to future generations.

They provide a road map for policy responses, by, in the latter case, establishing ceilings for GHG emissions above which dangerous climate change is likely, and then devising a global carbon budget within which nations have a per capita entitlement to use carbon.

Moving towards an optimal and safe level of carbon usage requires that some nations, in the first instance developed countries, would have to contract their use of carbon-intensive activities and others, primarily developing countries, would be entitled to expand their use of fossil fuels to meet basic development needs and so converge towards a per capita entitlement, which applies equally to all countries.

Such a principle may be seen as a consequence of both the principles of environmental justice and the principles of earth as global commons.

Equal per capita emissions is a natural focal point. Contestable computations based on economic variables do not need to enter the allocation formula.

Under contraction and convergence, each country will start out with emission entitlements equal to its current real emissions levels, and then, over time, converge to equal its per capita entitlements, while the overall global budget contracts to accommodate the emissions reduction objective.

In the process of convergence, the rights and interests of country B are really infringed by country A. Poverty is similarly deeply embedded in natural heritage.

Most animals have a pecking order of some sort, which leaves all of those at bottom, poor. To make poverty history will require fundamental changes in society, that revise millions of years of evolution and hundreds of millennia of human cultural development Now that the world population has grown so large and is still growing, the physical limits to alleviating extreme poverty have made the task more and more difficult, perhaps even impossible.

This may be the problem with the current international negotiations on climate change such as the Contraction and Convergence proposal Meyer , which has been widely accepted in principle but not followed in practice.

A world government can establish global justice based on the principle of contraction and convergence; it was developed during the Kyoto negotiations on fair global use of fossil fuels.

This principle is a good guide to full spectrum global justice, if applied to all factors that cause damage to the ecosystem.

We need contraction and conversion of consumption rates, and contraction and convergence of birth rates, contraction of inappropriate technology and convergence to appropriate technology world wide.

By imposing fines on illegal environmental actions, taxes on undesirable processes and by giving financial incentives to desirable processes of change governments contribute to the protection of the global commons.

Population management is a politically sensitive issue, as procreation next to life itself, is seen instinctively and legally as a fundamental human right.

Any interference by government is seen as an injustice. However, given the present state of the world, it has become a necessity. In fairness to all, contraction and convergence of birth rates for all nations to a globally sustainable level is the solution recommended for the population question.

The rate of consumption of resources and services is a major factor in human impact on the environment. A regulation of consumption has become a necessity.

Again contraction and convergence in the resource and services consumption is recommended as a solution, which is fair to all.

Council on Global Issues. The most prominent examples include contraction and convergence Meyer, ,If contraction and convergence were chosen as a burden-sharing principle, then converging per-capita emissions allocations over time could easily be expressed in terms of a dynamic climate rent sharing in the framework proposed here without affecting any of the underlying benefits in terms of environmental and cost effectiveness.

Many commentators have rejected Contraction and Convergence in recent years, as the changing science makes it unlikely that it can be environmentally adequate.

This, coupled with the larger than expected growth from developing countries, makes it difficult to perceive a scenario where emissions could converge in a way that does not exceed safe temperature rises.

While they line their pockets promoting extreme and divisive ideas they are promoting ideas that encourage rather than resolve conflict. In turn, this guarantees the income that comes from further failure.

The maximum global carbon emissions is the upmost amount of carbon that humans can emit before feedback loops increase global warming further and catastrophic climate change results.

Those who emit less than one tonne of carbon per annum may sell the rights to emit to people who emit over one tonne. Many people, particularly those living in developed countries, can make drastic reductions in their emissions in order to live within their carbon allowance.

To network with others who are working to reduce their carbon footprint, an online forum is also available. Climate and Health Council.

There are several proposals on the rights and responsibilities of developed and developing countries in sharing the responsibility of mitigation: One possibility is to acknowledge current levels of greenhouse gas emissions or a proportion of them as rights as implied by the Kyoto Protocol.

Secondly, the contraction and convergence argument proposes a transition from the current income-based distribution of emissions to an equal per capita distribution.

Wilkinson and Pickett say: Potentially, this leaves us in a virtuous circle, where increased equality leads to lower carbon emissions, and lower carbon emissions reduces the threat of events such as extreme weather which affect the poorest hardest.

On an international level the same dilemma applies. In response, nations are starting to follow the contraction and convergence model, whereby a sustainable average level of carbon emissions is met by large reductions in wealthier, more historically responsible countries, and an increase in development and so carbon emissions by poorer countries.

Could this be applied locally? Still, I like the way contraction and convergence clearly brings environmental and social issues together into a single framework.

Contraction and Convergence Let us begin with a fair share concept that is one of the most appealing as a matter of practicality, simplicity and transparency: Contraction is the process of reducing collective emissions to meet a concentration goal, e.

Convergence is the process of redistributing those emissions among countries to eventually attain equal per-capita emissions.

Many of the fair share methods rely to some extent on the norm of equal per-capita shares, particularly in the long-run when unequal economic circumstances across jurisdictions might be reduced and all countries developed.

Under the basic approach, one must pick a year by which all countries will agree to converge on an equal per-capita allocation.

One must also choose a base starting year, and a global emissions target in the year of convergence. While for most countries this will be a gradual decline in emissions, a number of less developed countries with current per capita emissions below the target for convergence would be allowed an emissions budget that gradually rises.

Some authors, including GCI, recommend using the population shares as of the base year to avoid encouraging population growth; others recommend against that, reasoning that this incentive is small compared with all the other incentives involved and that such action effectively punishes future inhabitants of countries whose current growth rates are high.

We specify the global emissions target in at Census, yielding a population share just under 0. The AB32 target of This is substantially above the Of course there is nothing magical about ; one can imagine the date of convergence being either earlier or later and that would change the fair share calculations.

We are reluctant to consider later dates because we think it critical that emissions globally are under control by this time. We do consider earlier dates, recognizing that they may be impractical in terms of actual global accomplishment unless new evidence propels the world to act more quickly than suggested by the most recent IPCC assessment.

Deason and Lee S. So we can plot lines for our nations current per-capita footprint to the sustainable equity footprint at some future point and that will represent the rate at which we HAVE to cut emissions.

However the choice is clear. We have to make enormous cuts and quickly. There is nothing to stop Local Councils adopting a Target-Based Contraction Framework based upon any of these figures.

Transition Town High Wycombe See here for more transition entries. Charles David Keeling died at his Montana home of a heart attack on 20 June As a post doctoral student at the California Institute of Technology in the mids, Dave was committed to his work as a chemist but he spent as much time as he could find travelling mountains and woodland rivers.

He chose research projects that would keep him in direct contact with wild nature. Measuring the level of carbon dioxide in the open air was a pretty good decision in that regard.

In tackling the task, Dave Keeling had to create his own tools. No instrument available to purchase had the necessary accuracy to make the kind of fine measurement that was necessary.

Months of hard work and ingenuity, therefore, went into solving that initial problem. He began to get the same reading from a number of locations and on different days.

Having achieved a degree of stability in his measurements, when fluctuations occurred, he was able to track down the source of the interfering concentrations.

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The petroleum business also includes the following auxiliary operating assets: Crude Oil Gathering System. The petroleum business owns and operates a crude oil gathering system serving Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Missouri, Colorado and Texas.

The gathering system includes approximately miles of active owned and leased pipelines and approximately crude oil transports and associated storage facilities, which allows it to gather crude oils from independent crude oil producers.

The crude oil gathering system has a gathering capacity of over 65, barrels per day "bpd". Gathered crude oil provides an attractive and competitive base supply of crude oil for the Coffeyville and Wynnewood refineries.

During , the petroleum business gathered an average of approximately 69, bpd. Pipelines and Storage Tanks. The petroleum business owns a proprietary pipeline system capable of transporting approximately , bpd of crude oil from its Broome Station facility located near Caney, Kansas to its Coffeyville refinery.

The petroleum business owns approximately i 1. The petroleum business also leases additional crude oil storage capacity of approximately iv 2.

In addition to crude oil storage, the petroleum business owns over 4. Crude and Feedstock Supply. The Coffeyville refinery has the capability to process blends of a variety of crude oil ranging from heavy sour to light sweet crude oil.

Currently, the Coffeyville refinery crude oil slate consists of a blend of mid-continent domestic grades and various Canadian medium and heavy sours, and it has recently introduced North Dakota Bakken and other similarly sourced crudes into its crude slate.

The Wynnewood refinery has the capability to process blends of a variety of crude oil ranging from medium sour to light sweet crude oil, although isobutane, gasoline components, and normal butane are also typically used.

Crude oil is supplied to the Coffeyville and Wynnewood refineries through the wholly-owned gathering system and by pipeline. The petroleum business has continued to increase the number of barrels of crude oil supplied through its crude oil gathering system in and it now has the capacity of supplying over 65, bpd of crude oil to the refineries.

Crude Oil Supply Agreement. Under the Vitol Agreement, Vitol supplies the petroleum business with crude oil and intermediation logistics, which helps the petroleum business to reduce its inventory position and mitigate crude oil pricing risk.

The Vitol Agreement currently extends through December 31, The petroleum business focuses its Coffeyville petroleum product marketing efforts in the central mid-continent area, because of its relative proximity to the refinery and pipeline access.

Coffeyville also has access to the Rocky Mountain area. Coffeyville engages in rack marketing, which is the supply of product through tanker trucks directly to customers located in close geographic proximity to the refinery and to customers at throughput terminals on the refined products distribution systems of Magellan and NuStar.

Coffeyville also makes bulk sales sales into third-party pipelines into the mid-continent markets and other destinations utilizing the product pipeline networks owned by Magellan Midstream Partners, L.

The Wynnewood refinery ships its finished product via pipeline, railcar, and truck. It focuses its efforts in the southern portion of the Magellan system which covers all of Oklahoma, parts of Arkansas as well as eastern Missouri, and all other Magellan terminals.

The pipeline system is also able to flow in the opposite direction, providing access to Texas markets as well as some adjoining states with pipeline connections.

Wynnewood also sells jet fuel to the U. Department of Defense via its segregated truck rack and can offer asphalts, solvents and other specialty products via both truck and rail.

The petroleum business sells bulk products to long-standing customers at spot market prices based on a Group 3 basis differential to prices quoted on the New York Mercantile Exchange "NYMEX" , which are reported by industry market-related indices such as Platts and Oil Price Information Service.

The petroleum business also has a rack marketing business supplying product through tanker trucks directly to customers located in proximity to the Coffeyville and Wynnewood refineries, as well as to customers located at throughput terminals on refined products distribution systems run by Magellan and NuStar.

Rack sales are at posted prices that are influenced by competitor pricing and Group 3 spot market differentials. Additionally, the Wynnewood refinery supplies jet fuel to the U.

The petroleum business competes primarily on the basis of price, reliability of supply, availability of multiple grades of products and location.

The principal competitive factors affecting its refining operations are cost of crude oil and other feedstock costs, refinery complexity, refinery efficiency, refinery product mix and product distribution and transportation costs.

The location of the refineries provides the petroleum business with a reliable supply of crude oil and a transportation cost advantage over its competitors.

The petroleum business primarily competes against five refineries operated in the mid-continent region. In addition to these refineries, the refineries compete against trading companies, as well as other refineries located outside the region that are linked to the mid-continent market through an extensive product pipeline system.

These competitors include refineries located near the Gulf Coast and the Texas panhandle region. The petroleum business refinery competition also includes branded, integrated and independent oil refining companies, such as Phillips 66 Company, HollyFrontier Corporation, CHS Inc.

The petroleum business experiences seasonal effects as demand for gasoline products is generally higher during the summer months than during the winter months due to seasonal increases in highway traffic and road construction work.

Demand for diesel fuel is higher during the planting and harvesting seasons. The demand for asphalt is also seasonal and is generally higher during the months of March through October.

The nitrogen fertilizer business is the only nitrogen fertilizer plant in North America that utilizes a pet coke gasification process to produce nitrogen fertilizer products, which are used primarily by farmers to improve the yield and quality of their crops.

The nitrogen fertilizer facility includes a 1, ton-per-day ammonia unit, a 3, ton-per-day UAN unit and a gasifier complex having a capacity of 89 million standard cubic feet per day of hydrogen.

Historically, pet coke has been less expensive than natural gas on a per ton of fertilizer produced basis. Historically the nitrogen fertilizer business has obtained the remainder of its pet coke requirements from third parties such as other Midwestern refineries or pet coke brokers at spot-prices.

The term of this agreement expires in December If necessary, the gasification process can be modified to operate on coal as an alternative, which provides an additional raw material source.

There are significant supplies of coal within a mile radius of the nitrogen fertilizer plant. Distribution, Sales and Marketing. The nitrogen fertilizer business markets the UAN products to agricultural customers and the ammonia products to industrial and agricultural customers.

UAN and ammonia are distributed by truck or by railcar. If delivered by truck, products are sold on a freight-on-board basis, and freight is normally arranged by the customer.

The nitrogen fertilizer business leases and owns a fleet of railcars for use in product delivery. The nitrogen fertilizer business operates eight rail loading and two truck loading racks for UAN.

It also operates four rail loading and two truck loading racks for ammonia. The nitrogen fertilizer business owns all of the truck and rail loading equipment at the nitrogen fertilizer facility.

The nitrogen fertilizer business also utilizes two separate UAN storage tanks and related truck and railcar load-out facilities.

Each of these facilities, located in Phillipsburg and Dartmouth, Kansas, has a UAN storage tank that has a capacity of two million gallons, or approximately 10, tons.

The Phillipsburg property that the terminal was constructed on is owned by a subsidiary of CVR Refining, which operates the terminal.

The Dartmouth terminal is located on leased property owned by the Pawnee County Cooperative Association, which operates the terminal.

The nitrogen fertilizer business markets agricultural products to destinations that produce strong margins. The UAN market is primarily located near the Union Pacific Railroad lines or destinations that can be supplied by truck.

The ammonia market is primarily located near the Burlington Northern Santa Fe or Kansas City Southern Railroad lines or destinations that can be supplied by truck.

The nitrogen fertilizer business often uses forward sales of fertilizer products to optimize its asset utilization, planning process and production scheduling.

These sales are made by offering customers the opportunity to purchase product on a forward basis at prices and delivery dates that it proposes.

Fixing the selling prices of nitrogen fertilizer products months in advance of their ultimate delivery to customers typically causes the nitrogen fertilizer business reported selling prices and margins to differ from spot market prices and margins available at the time of shipment.

The nitrogen fertilizer business sells UAN products to retailers and distributors. In addition, it sells ammonia to agricultural and industrial customers.

Some of its larger customers include Crop Production Services, Inc. Given the nature of its business, and consistent with industry practice, the nitrogen fertilizer business does not have long-term minimum purchase contracts with its UAN and ammonia customers.

Competition in the nitrogen fertilizer industry is dominated by price considerations. However, during the spring and fall application seasons, farming activities intensify and delivery capacity is a significant competitive factor.

The nitrogen fertilizer business maintains a large fleet of leased and owned railcars and seasonally adjusts inventory to enhance its manufacturing and distribution operations.

The nitrogen fertilizer business also encounters competition from producers of fertilizer products manufactured in foreign countries.

In certain cases, foreign producers of fertilizer who export to the United States may be subsidized by their respective governments.

Because the nitrogen fertilizer business primarily sells agricultural commodity products, its business is exposed to seasonal fluctuations in demand for nitrogen fertilizer products in the agricultural industry.

As a result, the nitrogen fertilizer business typically generates greater net sales in the first half of each calendar year, which is referred to as the planting season, and its net sales tend to be lower during the second half of each calendar year, which is referred to as the fill season.

These laws and regulations, their underlying regulatory requirements and the enforcement thereof impact the petroleum business and operations and the nitrogen fertilizer business and operations by imposing: In addition, the laws and regulations to which CVR is subject are often evolving and many of them have become more stringent or have become subject to more stringent interpretation or enforcement by federal or state agencies.

These laws and regulations could result in increased capital, operating and compliance costs. Safety, Health and Security Matters.

CVR is subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations related to safety, including the Occupational Safety and Health Act "OSHA" and comparable state statutes, the purpose of which are to protect the health and safety of workers.

CVR is subject to OSHA Process Safety Management regulations, which are designed to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive chemicals.

CVR operates a comprehensive safety, health and security program, with participation by employees at all levels of the organization.

CVR routinely audits its programs and consider improvements in its management systems. As a result of these inspections, the Wynnewood refinery entered into four OSHA settlement agreements in , pursuant to which it has agreed to undertake certain studies, conduct abatement activities, and revise and enhance certain OSHA compliance programs.

Refer to Note 17 , " Commitments and Contingencies -Energy," to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of OSHA matters related to the Wynnewood refinery boiler explosion.

The petroleum business is a party to a collective bargaining agreement with the Metal Trade Unions covering union members who work directly at the Coffeyville refinery.

The agreement expires in March The collective bargaining agreement with the International Union of Operating Engineers with respect to the Wynnewood refinery expires in June PSC Metals is principally engaged in the business of collecting, processing and selling ferrous and non-ferrous metals, as well as the processing and distribution of steel pipe and plate products.

PSC Metals collects industrial and obsolete scrap metal, processes it into reusable forms, and supplies the recycled metals to its customers, including electric-arc furnace mills, integrated steel mills, foundries, secondary smelters and metals brokers.

PSC Metals also operates a steel products business that includes the supply of secondary plate and structural grade pipe that is sold into niche markets for counterweights, piling and foundations, construction materials and infrastructure end-markets.

The scrap market in which PSC Metals operates is highly dependent on overall economic conditions in the U. Economic conditions in the U.

Deteriorating economic conditions outside the U. The strong dollar also encouraged increased steel imports that put pressure on domestic steel mill capacity utilization and resulted in increasing domestic steel inventories in Also during , iron ore prices dropped significantly, improving the economics of that alternative to processed scrap for steel.

The combined effect of these events on the scrap market was increased competition for decreasing domestic demand, and scrap prices falling by end of , to the lowest levels since On the supply side, competition for shredder feedstock remained intense and margins remained under pressure in Unstable, and decreasing market pricing throughout had the effect of reducing flows from peddlers and dealers while at the same time reducing margins.

We cannot predict whether, or how long, current market conditions will continue to persist. The Ferrous Scrap Metal Business. PSC Metals processes the scrap into a size, density and purity required by customers to meet their production needs.

PSC Metals purchases processed and unprocessed ferrous scrap metal from various sources, including individuals and traditional scrap yards as well as industrial manufacturers who recycle the scrap from their metal-forming processes and steel mills who look to PSC Metals to remarket secondary product they would otherwise scrap.

PSC Metals sets the price paid to its suppliers based on market factors such as the demand and price for processed material and the underlying metal content of the scrap material being purchased.

Changes in scrap prices could cause the collection rates of scrap to increase when prices are higher or decrease when prices are lower.

PSC Metals then sells processed ferrous scrap to end-users such as steel producing mini-mills and integrated steel makers and foundries, as well as brokers who aggregate materials for other large users.

Additionally, a significant amount of valuable, non-ferrous metal is also recovered as a by-product of the shredding process, which is sold separately as discussed below.

The Non-ferrous Scrap Metal Business. The primary non-ferrous commodities that PSC Metals recycles are aluminum, copper, brass, stainless steel and other nickel-bearing metals.

Non-ferrous products are a significant raw material in the production of aluminum and copper alloys used in manufacturing. The geographic markets for non-ferrous scrap tend to be larger than those for ferrous scrap due to the higher selling prices of non-ferrous metals relative to their weight, which justify the cost of shipping over greater distances.

Non-ferrous scrap is typically sold on a spot basis, either directly or through brokers, to intermediate or end-users, which include smelters, foundries and aluminum sheet and ingot manufacturers.

Prices for non-ferrous scrap are driven by demand for finished non-ferrous metal goods and by the general level of economic activity, with prices generally related to the price of the primary metal on the London Metals Exchange, Chicago Mercantile Exchange or the New York Commodity Exchange.

PSC Metals is focused on growing and diversifying its core ferrous business by improving operating efficiencies through better use of its assets, lowering its cost structure and continuing to expand its non-ferrous business through both acquisitions and organic growth.

PSC Metals seeks to acquire companies that will enable it to increase and maintain a consistent supply of scrap and capture efficiencies associated with an appropriate level of vertical integration.

The scrap metal recycling industry is highly competitive, cyclical in nature, and commodity-based. Operating results tend to reflect and be amplified by changes in general global economic conditions, which in turn drive domestic and overseas manufacturing and the consumption of scrap in the production of steel and foundry products.

Demand is driven by mill production schedules related to regional manufacturing requirements and service center stocking levels.

Due to the lower selling prices of ferrous metals relative to their weight, raw ferrous scrap is generally purchased locally. Ferrous scrap prices are local and regional in nature.

Where there are overlapping regional markets, however, prices do not tend to differ significantly between the regions due to the ability of companies to ship scrap metal from one region to another.

The most significant limitation on the size of the geographic market for the procurement of ferrous scrap is transportation cost. The steel products business is less cyclical but is affected by the rate of secondary product generated by steel mills generating these products and the market demands in plate and pipe markets.

We conduct our Railcar segment through our majority ownership interests in American Railcar Industries, Inc. ARL is considered an entity under common control that requires us to consolidate the financial results of ARL on an as-if-pooling basis.

ARI is one of the leading North American designers and manufacturers of hopper and tank railcars. ARI provides its railcar customers with integrated solutions through a comprehensive set of high-quality products and related services through its manufacturing, leasing and railcar services operations.

ARL is engaged in the business of leasing railcars to customers with specific requirements whose products require specialized railcars dedicated to transporting, storing, and preserving the integrity of their products.

These products are primarily in the energy, food and agriculture, chemical, minerals and petrochemical industries. ARI is a reporting company under the Exchange Act and files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC that is publicly available.

In servicing this customer base our Railcar segment believes its comprehensive railcar services offerings and its railcar components manufacturing operations will help our Railcar segment to further penetrate the general railcar manufacturing and leasing market.

ARI designs, manufactures and sells special, customized and general purpose railcars and a wide range of components primarily for the North American railcar and industrial markets.

ARI primarily manufactures two types of railcars, hopper and tank railcars, but has the ability to produce additional railcar types.

In addition, ARI offers these same railcars for lease. ARI also supports the railcar industry by offering a variety of comprehensive railcar repair services, ranging from full to light repair, engineering and on-site repairs and maintenance through its various repair facilities, including mobile units and mini shops.

ARI and ARL offer customers the option to lease their railcars through various leasing options, including full service leases.

Its primary customers for services provided by this group are leasing companies and shippers of specialty hopper and tank railcars.

ARI uses this knowledge to improve its service and product offerings. The railcar manufacturing industry has historically been extremely competitive.

The railcar leasing industry has also been historically extremely competitive. We conduct our Gaming segment through our majority ownership in Tropicana Entertainment Inc.

Tropicana is a reporting company under the Exchange Act and files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC that are publicly available.

Tropicana is an owner and operator of regional casino and entertainment properties located in the United States and one casino resort development located on the island of Aruba.

On April 1, , Tropicana acquired an additional casino resort in Missouri. Tropicana primarily caters to local and regional guests to provide a fun and exciting gaming environment with high-quality and high-value lodging, dining, retail and entertainment amenities.

Tropicana Evansville - Evansville, Indiana;. Tropicana Greenville - Greenville, Mississippi; and. Tropicana Aruba - Palm Beach, Aruba. Tropicana owns land-based and riverboat casino facilities in six states and one casino resort located on the island of Aruba.

Tropicana competes with numerous casinos and casino hotels of varying quality and size in the markets in which its properties are located and with other forms of legalized gaming, including state-sponsored lotteries, racetracks, off-track wagering, video lottery, video poker terminals and card parlors.

Tropicana also competes with other non-gaming resorts and vacation areas, and with various other entertainment businesses. The casino entertainment business is characterized by competitors that vary considerably by their size, quality of facilities, number of operations, brand identities, marketing and growth strategies, financial strength and capabilities, level of amenities, management talent and geographic diversity.

In most markets, Tropicana competes directly with other casino facilities operating in the immediate and surrounding market areas, including casinos located on Native American reservations.

In some markets, Tropicana faces competition from nearby markets in addition to direct competition within its market areas. Tropicana believes competition in existing markets has intensified over the last several years, due to new markets opening for development, overall challenging economic conditions and decreased spending on leisure activities.

Many casino operators have invested in expanding existing facilities, developing new facilities, and acquiring established facilities in existing markets.

The expansion of casino entertainment at existing properties, the increase in the number of properties and the aggressive marketing strategies of many of our competitors has increased competition in many markets in which Tropicana competes, and it expects this intense competition to continue.

Tropicana uses a variety of trade names, service marks and trademarks and has all the rights and licenses necessary to conduct its continuing operations.

Tropicana has registered several service marks and trademarks with the United States Patent and Trademark Office or otherwise acquired the licenses to use those which are material to the conduct of its business.

Tropicana owns the following federally registered trademarks or service marks that are material to its business: Operating results are traditionally the strongest in the third quarter and traditionally the weakest during the fourth quarter.

Any excess cash flows achieved from operations during the peak seasons are used to subsidize non-peak seasons. Performance in non-peak seasons is usually dependent on favorable weather and a long-weekend holiday calendar.

In the event that Tropicana is not able to generate excess cash flows during the peak seasons, it may not be able to fully subsidize non-peak seasons.

Gaming laws generally are based upon declarations of public policy designed to protect gaming consumers and the viability and integrity of the gaming industry.

Gaming laws also may be designed to protect and maximize state and local revenues derived through taxes and licensing fees imposed on the gaming industry participants as well as to enhance economic development and tourism.

To accomplish these public policy goals, gaming laws establish procedures to ensure that participants in the gaming industry meet certain standards of character and fitness.

Gaming laws require Tropicana and certain of its subsidiaries, as well as its directors, officers with respect to corporations , managers with respect to limited liability companies , and certain other key employees and, in some cases, certain of its shareholders with respect to corporations , members with respect to limited liability companies , and holders of debt securities, to obtain licenses, findings of suitability or other approvals from gaming authorities.

Licenses or findings of. Where not mandated by statute, rule or regulation, gaming authorities generally have broad discretion in determining who must come forward for suitability and whether an applicant qualifies for licensing or should be deemed suitable or otherwise qualified.

Tropicana is subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, currency transactions, employees, taxation, zoning and building codes, marketing and advertising, vessels and permanently moored craft.

Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted.

Tropicana periodically experiences challenges in negotiating collective bargaining agreements with certain unions. As discussed below, we obtained control of and consolidated the results of Ferrous Resources during the second quarter of Ferrous Resources acquired certain rights to iron ore mineral resources in Brazil and develops mining operations and related infrastructure to produce and sell iron ore products to the global steel industry.

Prior to the tender offer, IEP Ferrous owned approximately Future revenues will depend on Brazilian and global demand levels for iron ore, iron ore international sales prices, the type of iron ore product it sells and the iron content of those products.

Iron ore prices including sale prices in Brazil are largely driven by global demand for crude steel, the primary driver for iron ore demand.

For Ferrous Resources, the key performance driver has historically been from demand for raw materials from Chinese steelmakers.

For the period June 1, through December 31, , Ferrous Resources has been concentrating on sales in Brazil, where the best margins are being captured.

The iron ore industry is characterized by intense competition and a high level of market concentration. Ferrous Resources competes with a number of large international mining companies, many of which have mineral and financial resources substantially greater than those of Ferrous Resources.

Viskase is a worldwide leader in the production and sale of cellulosic, fibrous and plastic casings for the processed meat and poultry industry.

Viskase operates nine manufacturing facilities, six distribution centers and three service centers throughout North America, Europe, South America and Asia.

Viskase believes it is one of the two largest worldwide producers of non-edible cellulosic casings for processed meats and one of the three largest manufacturers of non-edible fibrous casings.

Viskase has been successful in implementing production cost-savings initiatives and will continue to pursue similar opportunities that enhance its profitability and competitive positioning as a leader in the casing market.

Viskase has seven manufacturing or finishing facilities located outside the continental United States: Viskase continues to explore opportunities to expand in emerging markets.

While overall consumption of processed meat products in North America and Western Europe is stable, market growth is driven by increasing demand in Eastern Europe, South America and the Asia Pacific region.

Our Real Estate operations consist of rental real estate, property development and associated club activities. Our rental real estate operations consist primarily of retail, office and industrial properties leased to single corporate tenants.

Historically, substantially all of our real estate assets leased to others have been net-leased under long-term leases. With certain exceptions, these tenants are required to pay all expenses relating to the leased property and, therefore, we are typically not responsible for payment of expenses, including maintenance, utilities, taxes, insurance or any capital items associated with such properties.

Our property development operations are run primarily through Bayswater Development LLC, a real estate investment, management and development subsidiary that focuses primarily on the construction and sale of single-family and multi-family homes, lots in subdivisions and planned communities and raw land for residential development.

Our New Seabury development property in Cape Cod, Massachusetts and our Grand Harbor development property in Vero Beach, Florida include land for future residential development of approximately and 1, units of residential housing, respectively.

Both our developments operate golf and club operations as well. Our long-term investment horizon and operational expertise allow us to acquire properties with limited current income and complex entitlement and development issues.

Our Real Estate business strategy is based on our long-term investment outlook. We maximize the value of our commercial lease portfolio through effective management of existing properties and disposal of assets on an opportunistic basis.

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