Four by four

four by four

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'four' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Inklusive kostenloser MP3-Version dieses Albums. AutoRip steht nur bei Musik- CDs und Vinyl-Schallplatten zur Verfügung, die von Amazon EU S.à.r.l. verkauft. Four-by-four Definition: a vehicle equipped with four-wheel drive | Bedeutung, Aussprache, Übersetzungen und Beispiele.

One deciding factor had to do with availability of certain critical components, like transfer cases and especially constant-velocity joints , not used much on commercial vehicles, [nb 1] but all-wheel drive vehicles all needed these; plus additionally, they would use two or three times the amount of driven axles, meaning more gears to cut for all the differentials.

Produced up to the war by a few specialized firms with limited capacity, from spring Ford, Dodge and Chevrolet joined in fabricating these in a quantity more than a fold greater than in Although Russia had their own jeep-like vehicle the GAZ up and running in , a year earlier than the American jeep — in the early years of the war, they relied significantly on Lend-Lease vehicles, provided by the western allies.

In they launched a further developed version: Willys introduced the model CJ-2A in , the first full-production four-wheel drive vehicle for sale in the general marketplace.

Originally conceived as a stop-gap product for the struggling Rover car company, despite chronic under-investment it succeeded far better than their passenger cars.

With the acquisition of the "Jeep" name in Willys had cornered the brand. Not only was it technically innovative, with independent front suspension and the first automatic transmission coupled to 4WD, it was equipped and finished as a regular passenger automobile.

The luxury Rambler or Buick V8s powered Super Wagoneer produced from to raised the bar even higher. With its added roadworthiness, the top range full-size Grand Wagoneer continued to compete with traditional luxury cars.

Subaru introduced the category-expanding Leone in , an inexpensive compact station wagon with a light-duty, part-time four-wheel drive system that could not be engaged on dry pavement.

American Motors introduced the innovative Eagle for the model year. The new Eagles combined Jeep technology with an existing and proven AMC passenger automobile platform.

They ushered a whole new product category of "sport-utility" or crossover SUV. This was a true full-time system operating only in four-wheel drive without undue wear on suspension or driveline components.

There was no low range in the transfer case. This became the forerunner of the designs that followed from other manufacturers. The Eagles were popular particularly in the snowbelt , had towing capacity, and came in several equipment levels including sport and luxury trims.

A manual transmission and a front axle-disconnect feature were also made available for greater fuel economy. During and a unique convertible was added to the line.

Total AMC Eagle production was almost , vehicles. Audi also introduced a permanently all-wheel-driven road-going car, the Audi Quattro , in The Audi Quattro system became a feature on production cars.

In , Toyota also developed a car built for competition in rally campaigns. Some of the earliest mid-engined four-wheel-drive cars were the various road-legal rally cars made for Group B homologation, such as the Ford RS made from to In , niche maker Panther Westwinds created a mid-engined four-wheel-drive, the Panther Solo 2.

In the United States, as of late , AWD vehicles comprised 32 per cent of new light vehicle sales, up five per cent since In , Nissan introduced the GT-R featuring a rear-mounted transaxle.

The AWD system requires two drive shafts , one main shaft from the engine to the transaxle and differential and a second drive shaft from the transaxle to the front wheels.

Spyker is credited with building and racing the first ever four-wheel drive racing car, the Spyker 60 HP in Bugatti created a total of three four-wheel-drive racers, the Type 53 , in , but the cars were notorious for having poor handling.

All these F1 cars were considered inferior to their RWD counterparts, as the advent of aerodynamic downforce meant that adequate traction could be obtained in a lighter and more mechanically efficient manner, and the idea was discontinued, even though Lotus tried repeatedly.

So successful was the car that it dominated the Japanese circuit for the first years of production, going on to bigger and more impressive wins in Australia before weight penalties eventually levied a de facto ban on the car.

Most controversially was the win pulled off at the Macau Grand Prix where the car led from start to finish. The Super Duty trucks shared many parts between the light duty and medium duty, reducing production costs.

The Dana 60 front axle is used on both medium- and light-duty Super Duty trucks. Volvo introduced the Model four-wheel drive backhoe loader in In engineering terms, "four-wheel drive" designates a vehicle with power delivered to four wheel ends spread over at least two axles.

Examples of these with two rear, one front axle are the 6-wheeled Pinzgauer , which is popular with defense forces around the globe, and wheeled GMC CCKW made famous by the U.

Army in World War II. The "four" in the instance referring to the vehicle having four wheels, not necessarily all driven. Combined with twin fuel tanks and twin batteries which could be set up to run either or both engines , the redundancy of two separate drive trains meant that they could make it back to civilization even after major mechanical failures.

Only around of these cars were built, and only 27 are known to exist today. BMC experimented with a twin-engine Mini Moke dubbed the "Twini Moke" in the mids, but never put it into production.

Early prototypes had separate gear levers and clutch systems for each engine. Later versions sent for evaluation by the British Army had more user-friendly linked systems.

Chadwick patented a 4WD system, GB , that used hemispherical wheels for an all-terrain vehicle. Twenty years later, B.

By using near-spherical wheels with provision to tilt and turn each wheel co-ordinatively, the driven wheels maintain constant traction. Progressive deceleration is made possible by dynamically changing the front-to-rear effective wheel diameter ratios.

Earlier Suzuki versions were twin engined, from on the engine is a twin-turbocharged 2. Nissan Motors has developed a system called E-4WD. It is designed for cars that are normally front-wheel drive; however, the rear wheels are powered by electric motors.

This system was introduced in some variants of the Nissan Cube and Tiida. This is accomplished by driving the left wheels as a pair and right wheels as a pair, as opposed to driving the front and rear pairs.

A central gearbox allows one side to drive in the opposite direction to the other. It also has dual Hemi V8s. Some hybrid vehicles such as the Lexus RXh provide power to an AWD system through a pair of electric motors, one to the front wheels and one to the rear.

Transfer of power is managed automatically by internal electronics based on traction conditions and need, making this an all-wheel-drive system.

The 4RM system used in the Ferrari FF in is unique in that it has a rear transaxle with secondary front transaxle connected directly to the engine.

The car operates primarily as a rear-wheel drive vehicle. Clutches in the front transaxle engage when the rear wheels slip.

The front transaxle has three gears, two forward, and reverse. The two forward gears of the front transmission match the lower four forward gears of the rear transmission.

It is not used in higher gears. The connection between this gearbox and each front wheel is via independent haldex-type clutches, without a differential.

The above systems ending with " " function by selectively using the traction control system via ABS to brake a slipping wheel. Some in this category have varying degrees of control in the torque distribution between front and rear by allowing some of the clutches in a multi-plate clutch coupling to engage and slip varying amounts.

In extreme conditions, the system can be locked in a These are vehicles that have no center differential. Since there is no center differential to allow for speed differences between the front and rear wheels when turning, a small amount of tire slippage must occur during turns.

The war is not fought in Oceanian, Eurasian or Eastasian territory but in the Arctic wastes and in a disputed zone comprising the sea and land from Tangiers Northern Africa to Darwin Australia.

The public are blind to the change; in mid-sentence, an orator changes the name of the enemy from "Eurasia" to "Eastasia" without pause.

When the public are enraged at noticing that the wrong flags and posters are displayed, they tear them down; the Party later claims to have captured Africa.

By using up most of the produced objects like boots and rations, the proles are kept poor and uneducated and will neither realise what the government is doing nor rebel.

The military technology in the novel differs little from that of World War II, but strategic bomber aeroplanes are replaced with rocket bombs , helicopters were heavily used as weapons of war they did not figure in World War II in any form but prototypes and surface combat units have been all but replaced by immense and unsinkable Floating Fortresses, island-like contraptions concentrating the firepower of a whole naval task force in a single, semi-mobile platform in the novel, one is said to have been anchored between Iceland and the Faroe Islands , suggesting a preference for sea lane interdiction and denial.

The society of Airstrip One and, according to "The Book", almost the whole world, lives in poverty: Ruined cities and towns are common: Social decay and wrecked buildings surround Winston; aside from the ministerial pyramids, little of London was rebuilt.

Members of the Outer Party consume synthetic foodstuffs and poor-quality "luxuries" such as oily gin and loosely-packed cigarettes, distributed under the "Victory" brand.

They were smoked because it was easier to import them from India than it was to import American cigarettes from across the Atlantic because of the War of the Atlantic.

Winston describes something as simple as the repair of a broken pane of glass as requiring committee approval that can take several years and so most of those living in one of the blocks usually do the repairs themselves Winston himself is called in by Mrs.

Parsons to repair her blocked sink. All Outer Party residences include telescreens that serve both as outlets for propaganda and to monitor the Party members; they can be turned down, but they cannot be turned off.

In contrast to their subordinates, the Inner Party upper class of Oceanian society reside in clean and comfortable flats in their own quarter of the city, with pantries well-stocked with foodstuffs such as wine, coffee and sugar, all denied to the general populace.

All members of the Inner Party are attended to by slaves captured in the disputed zone, and "The Book" suggests that many have their own motorcars or even helicopters.

The proles live in poverty and are kept sedated with alcohol, pornography and a national lottery whose winnings are never actually paid out; that is obscured by propaganda and the lack of communication within Oceania.

At the same time, the proles are freer and less intimidated than the middle-class Outer Party: They lack telescreens in their own homes and often jeer at the telescreens that they see.

The model demands tight control of the middle class, with ambitious Outer-Party members neutralised via promotion to the Inner Party or "reintegration" by the Ministry of Love, and proles can be allowed intellectual freedom because they lack intellect.

Winston nonetheless believes that "the future belonged to the proles". The standard of living of the populace is low overall.

Consumer goods are scarce, and all those available through official channels are of low quality; for instance, despite the Party regularly reporting increased boot production, more than half of the Oceanian populace goes barefoot.

The Party claims that poverty is a necessary sacrifice for the war effort, and "The Book" confirms that to be partially correct since the purpose of perpetual war consumes surplus industrial production.

Outer Party members and proles occasionally gain access to better items in the market, which deals in goods that were pilfered from the residences of the Inner Party.

The object of torture is torture. The object of power is power. There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life.

All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But always—do not forget this, Winston—always there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler.

Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless.

If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face—forever. A major theme of Nineteen Eighty-Four is censorship, especially in the Ministry of Truth, where photographs are modified and public archives rewritten to rid them of "unpersons" persons who are erased from history by the Party.

On the telescreens, figures for all types of production are grossly exaggerated or simply invented to indicate an ever-growing economy, when the reality is the opposite.

One small example of the endless censorship is Winston being charged with the task of eliminating a reference to an unperson in a newspaper article.

He proceeds to write an article about Comrade Ogilvy, a made-up party member who displayed great heroism by leaping into the sea from a helicopter so that the dispatches he was carrying would not fall into enemy hands.

The inhabitants of Oceania , particularly the Outer Party members, have no real privacy. Many of them live in apartments equipped with two-way telescreens so that they may be watched or listened to at any time.

Similar telescreens are found at workstations and in public places, along with hidden microphones. Written correspondence is routinely opened and read by the government before it is delivered.

The Thought Police employ undercover agents, who pose as normal citizens and report any person with subversive tendencies. Children are encouraged to report suspicious persons to the government, and some denounce their parents.

Citizens are controlled, and the smallest sign of rebellion, even something so small as a facial expression, can result in immediate arrest and imprisonment.

Thus, citizens, particularly party members, are compelled to obedience. A linguistic theory about how language may direct thought is the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis.

Whether or not the Newspeak appendix implies a hopeful end to Nineteen Eighty-Four remains a critical debate, as it is in Standard English and refers to Newspeak, Ingsoc, the Party etc.

Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs.

Some time at an unspecified date after the first American publication of the book, producer Sidney Sheldon wrote to Orwell interested in adapting the novel to the Broadway stage.

Orwell sold the American stage rights to Sheldon, explaining that his basic goal with Nineteen Eighty-Four was imagining the consequences of Stalinist government ruling British society:.

The slogan was seen in electric lights on Moscow house-fronts, billboards and elsewhere. Oceania had always been at war with Eastasia.

The two nations were open and frequently vehement critics of each other until the signing of the Treaty of Non-Aggression.

Thereafter, and continuing until the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in , no criticism of Germany was allowed in the Soviet press, and all references to prior party lines stopped—including in the majority of non-Russian communist parties who tended to follow the Russian line.

The description of Emmanuel Goldstein, with a "small, goatee beard", evokes the image of Leon Trotsky.

The film of Goldstein during the Two Minutes Hate is described as showing him being transformed into a bleating sheep. This image was used in a propaganda film during the Kino-eye period of Soviet film, which showed Trotsky transforming into a goat.

The omnipresent images of Big Brother, a man described as having a moustache, bears resemblance to the cult of personality built up around Joseph Stalin.

The news in Oceania emphasised production figures, just as it did in the Soviet Union, where record-setting in factories by " Heroes of Socialist Labour " was especially glorified.

The best known of these was Alexey Stakhanov , who purportedly set a record for coal mining in The tortures of the Ministry of Love evoke the procedures used by the NKVD in their interrogations, [46] including the use of rubber truncheons, being forbidden to put your hands in your pockets, remaining in brightly lit rooms for days, torture through the use of their greatest fear, and the victim being shown a mirror after their physical collapse.

The random bombing of Airstrip One is based on the Buzz bombs and the V-2 rocket , which struck England at random in — The song was published as early as The song was a popular camp song in the s, sung with corresponding movements like touching your chest when you sing "chest", and touching your head when you sing "nut".

Glenn Miller recorded the song in The "Hates" Two Minutes Hate and Hate Week were inspired by the constant rallies sponsored by party organs throughout the Stalinist period.

These were often short pep-talks given to workers before their shifts began Two Minutes Hate , but could also last for days, as in the annual celebrations of the anniversary of the October revolution Hate Week.

Orwell fictionalized "newspeak", "doublethink", and "Ministry of Truth" as evinced by both the Soviet press and that of Nazi Germany. When he fell in , and was subsequently executed, institutes that had the encyclopaedia were sent an article about the Bering Strait, with instructions to paste it over the article about Beria.

A small collection of the more political of these have been published together with his wartime speeches in English as "On the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union" By Joseph Stalin.

The story concludes with an appendix describing the success of the project. It is a naval power whose militarism venerates the sailors of the floating fortresses, from which battle is given to recapturing India, the "Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire.

Altered photographs and newspaper articles create unpersons deleted from the national historical record, including even founding members of the regime Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford in the s purges viz the Soviet Purges of the s, in which leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution were similarly treated.

A similar thing also happened during the French Revolution in which many of the original leaders of the Revolution were later put to death, for example Danton who was put to death by Robespierre , and then later Robespierre himself met the same fate.

In his essay " Why I Write ", Orwell explains that the serious works he wrote since the Spanish Civil War —39 were "written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism ".

Dips into the Near Future [61] by John A. The term "English Socialism" has precedents in his wartime writings; in the essay " The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius " , he said that "the war and the revolution are inseparable An English Socialism would come about which "will never lose touch with the tradition of compromise and the belief in a law that is above the State.

It will shoot traitors, but it will give them a solemn trial beforehand and occasionally it will acquit them. It will crush any open revolt promptly and cruelly, but it will interfere very little with the spoken and written word.

Comparison of the wartime essay "The Lion and the Unicorn" with Nineteen Eighty-Four shows that he perceived a Big Brother regime as a perversion of his cherished socialist ideals and English Socialism.

Thus Oceania is a corruption of the British Empire he believed would evolve "into a federation of Socialist states, like a looser and freer version of the Union of Soviet Republics".

When it was first published, Nineteen Eighty-Four received critical acclaim. Pritchett , reviewing the novel for the New Statesman stated: Forster and Harold Nicolson.

Nineteen Eighty-Four has been adapted for the cinema, radio, television and theatre at least twice each, as well as for other art media, such as ballet and opera.

The effect of Nineteen Eighty-Four on the English language is extensive; the concepts of Big Brother , Room , the Thought Police , thoughtcrime , unperson , memory hole oblivion , doublethink simultaneously holding and believing contradictory beliefs and Newspeak ideological language have become common phrases for denoting totalitarian authority.

The practice of ending words with "-speak" such as mediaspeak is drawn from the novel. References to the themes, concepts and plot of Nineteen Eighty-Four have appeared frequently in other works, especially in popular music and video entertainment.

An example is the worldwide hit reality television show Big Brother , in which a group of people live together in a large house, isolated from the outside world but continuously watched by television cameras.

The book touches on the invasion of privacy and ubiquitous surveillance. From mid it was publicized that the NSA has been secretly monitoring and storing global internet traffic, including the bulk data collection of email and phone call data.

Sales of Nineteen Eighty-Four increased by up to seven times within the first week of the mass surveillance leaks. The book also shows mass media as a catalyst for the intensification of destructive emotions and violence.

Always do your best. A Practical Guide to Personal Freedom. Walking away may hurt for a while, but your heart will eventually heal.

Then you can choose what you really want. Nothing other people do is because of you. It is because of themselves.

God is life in action. The best way to say, "I love you, God," is to live your life doing your best. The best way to say, "Thank you, God," is by letting go of the past and living in the present moment, right here and now.

Whatever life takes away from you, let it go. When you surrender and let go of the past, you allow yourself to be fully alive in the moment.

Letting go of the past means you can enjoy the dream that is happening right now. The dream of your life is to make beautiful art.

There is no time to miss anyone or anything because you are alive. Not enjoying what is happening right now is living in the past and being only half alive.

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